Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) released the updated guideline on the treatment for multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment regimens based on new experimental and observational evidence . In this new guidance the most important drugs are the late-generation fluoroquinolones (i.e., levofloxacin and moxifloxacin), linezolid, and bedaquiline. Despite the new guidance MDR- and extensively drug resistant (XDR) TB treatment is challenging due to the risk of drug-related adverse events (AE) and drug-drug interactions (DDI). Precision medicine-based approach to minimise the risk of resistance emergence and amplification and to provide patients with the highest standard of care has been recommended .
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Conflict of interest: Dr. Alffenaar has nothing to disclose.
Conflict of interest: Dr. Akkerman has nothing to disclose.
Conflict of interest: Dr. Tiberi has nothing to disclose.
Conflict of interest: Dr. Sotgiu has nothing to disclose.
Conflict of interest: Dr. Migliori has nothing to disclose.